Beet with corrugated leaves is capable to form root crops of bigger weight and provides higher collecting sugar, but this property is realized only in the conditions of sufficient moistening. In dry summer, and also in droughty conditions. beet with smooth leaves transfers a drought and a heat better, providing more big crops.
Root crops of sugar beet often use on a forage. in 1 c. they contain 26.. and 1,2 kg of a perevarimy protein. At a crop of 30 t. root crops and 15 t. a tops of vegetable with 1 hectare of crops of sugar beet receive about 11 thousand.. and 700 kg of a perevarimy protein.
At different grades of sugar beet balls differ by the size: the soplodiya of mnogorostkovy grades is much larger than fruits of odnorostkovy grades. Fruits of grades of beet of the fruitful direction are larger than grades of the sugary direction. Large, sound balls yield powerful sprouts and a big crop of root crops. From larger and heavy seeds of the same ball root crops with a bigger weight also develop.
The press represents obessakharenny beet shaving and is a fine forage for cattle. It is used in the raw and for siloing. The dry press on fodder advantages comes nearer to the concentrated sterns. In 100 kg of a dry press contains 85.. , in 100 kg of a fresh press – 5,6 kg of solids. In the wrung-out press solids make 15 – 18%, including a crude protein – 1,3, crude fat – 0,1, bezazotisty extractive substances – 9,9, cellulose – 3,0, ashes – 0,7%.
Except the direct use of sugar in food, its significant amount it is used at production of candy stores and bakery products, jam, jam and other industrial and house food products. More than 30% of sugar are spent for these purposes.
Besides sugar at factory processing of beet receive by-products, such as a press, treacle and. From the same 100 c. beets, except sugar receive 85 – 90 c. fresh press, 4 – 5 c. treacle and 8 – 9 c of a defekat.
Leaves of the first ten dry out with an interval of 5-7 days. Usykhaniye of the subsequent leaves occurs all quicker and by the end of vegetation leaves of the last ten, except cut off when cleaning, dry out in 1-2 days.
Flowers are placed in bosoms of pritsvetny leaves by groups, they grow together together and form seeds - a soplodiya (balls) with a diameter of 3-4 mm and weighing up to 30 mg. One ball of polycarpous beet contains so many fruits, how many were flowers in a bosom of a pritsvetny leaf (usually 2-. At one-fetal (odnorostkovy) beet flowers single and each of them forms one fruit.
At cultivation of various forms of beet in gardens and kitchen gardens inevitably there was their natural hybridization among themselves, in particular, of mangolds to various rhizocarpous forms. Such natural hybrid, combining in itself a number of signs of rhizocarpous and sheet beet, so-called Silesian beet was.
Defekat received in the course of purification of juice at plants is used as limy fertilizer under sugar beet on soils with the increased acidity. Dried to a loose state (humidity of 25 - 30%) contains (%):60 – 75 CaCO3, 10 – 15 organic substances, 0,2 – 0,7 N, 0,2 – 0,9 P2O5, 0,3 – 1,0 K2O, magnesium, sulfur and microcells.
Agrotechnical and economic value of sugar beet is exclusively great. Introduction of sugar beet to a crop rotation promotes rise in the general level of the standard of farming, increase of efficiency of a crop rotation and intensification of agricultural production.
Nevertheless, in an initial stage of growth they have extremely important value for life of plants. Damage by a cotyledon often causes the necessity of resowing of beet that it is,, extremely undesirable.
With emergence by a cotyledon on a soil surface process of growth starts being carried out by a continuous metabolism on the basis of root and air food with which the provides itself through root system and leaves.
The appeared cotyledons have an elongated and elliptic form, are small by the size - upon termination of growth width makes them only 0,5-0,7 cm, length - 2-3 cm. They live not for long (15-20 days) and soon, after development of 3-4 couples real leaves, turn yellow and die off.